Horehound (Marrubium vulgare) is a flowering plant in the mint family. It grows quite well here in Zone 6b. I just have a couple of plants, but they produce quite enough for our needs.
In the late summer, when it is flowering, and late in the day I go out and pick the leaves. I am always careful to leave the youngest leaves and enough leaves so that the roots are fed and ready to survive the upcoming cold.
The following is how I use horehound. It should not construed to be medical advice.
Use 1: You can dry the leaves and then steep 1 tsp of leaves in hot water for a sore throat.
Use 2: You can mix a leaf with honey and chew on it for a sore throat or cough.
Or Use 3, which is how I prefer . . . Horehound cough drops
Make no mistake, this is not candy. It is quite bitter, but it is an effective cough drop. You can suck on it, like normal, or let it dissolve in a bit of hot water, add honey and drink.
1 cup fresh horehound leaves
2 cups water
Let boil for 20 minutes
Let cool and then strain out the leaves, I squeeze the leaves to release all the oils. I normally get about a 1/4 cup liquid.
Put liquid into a sauce pan, add 2 cups of sugar, and boil to the candy stage. ( I test by dropping a drop in a glass of cold water, if it stays together, it is candy stage. You can also use a thermometer.)
Put a silicone mat in a baking sheet and pour the horehound mixture onto it. Place in refrigerator until solid. You could also use small candy molds (and those are on my wish list for next year)
The next day, remove from tray (or molds), break into pieces, wrap in wax paper, and store in jars.
I keep most of mine in the freezer, but leave a jar or two in the fridge.
This path, this revolution of belonging, necessarily entails accepting our responsibility towards our own places and communities. It might be impossible to save the world all in one go, but it is possible to protect, guard – and yes, even save, when necessary — our home places and our communities. If we have to do it little by little, one place at a time, then now is a good time to begin. Each of us sewing just one of the squares which contributes to the vast, growing patchwork quilt of the world’s renewal.” ~Sharon Blackie
I read that somewhere, years ago, and it was probably John Jeavons. Jeavons’s gardening system is unique in that he has you using a good bit of your space to grow compost. Or rather, to grow things to be composted.
All in all, it is a very necessary thing to consider. When you eat from your land, you are only eating as healthfully as the soil is healthy. If you are lacking certain minerals in the soil, you will end up lacking them in your body. This is one reason why my family doesn’t strive to be 100% eating from this land. We know there are gaps —I mean, it was an industrial agriculture corn and soy field.
Growing soil: We compost religiously — I have already done a post on that. We don’t walk on the soil — I have mentioned that. We don’t till or plow the soil — I have mentioned this too. We have permanent garden beds — I have mentioned this too. We have grass paths between our garden beds — yep, already talked about this. We plant trees so they can pull up deep minerals. — I want to talk about this. We have animals for their manure — I am going to talk more about this in a minute. We try not to leave the soil bare — but we need to do better with this one.
Trees for the garden: I love trees. Plain and simple, and I would plant them for no other reason than for the simple joy they bring me. These beauties sink their roots deep into the earth and pull minerals up into their leaves . . . And then they drop those leaves, conveniently, within my reach each autumn. And so, I thank them, marvel at their beauty and thoughtfulness, and then gather up about half the leaves. I leave the other half to return minerals to the soil that is supporting the tree. The leaves I gather are added to the compost pile or tucked up around other plants — like the hibiscus, or a new little tree just getting established. Since we also heat our home with wood, the ashes are added to the compost as well. The ashes are another source of minerals for the soil.
Animals for manure: We have, in the past, had animals that we intended to eat (chickens, goats, sheep, and cows), or milk (cows and goats), or collect their eggs (chickens), or harvest their wool (sheep).
I have to tell you, I can’t do it. I can’t raise a creature, love that creature, and then kill and eat that creature. So I choose to be mostly vegetarian
The second great revelation was with dairy animals. I can’t do that either. First of all, you need a male (or have access to the male). Then you have to decide if you are keeping all the babies, if you don’t you’ll have to sell them or find homes for them. Babies come with tiny little horn buds. Some people have no problem burning them off with a very hot iron. I do have a problem with that. So I let their little horns grow. But most people don’t want an animal with horns. And finally, we learned that our family is highly lactose intolerant. So no more dairy animals.
My favorite animals (other than rabbits and chickens) to have on the farm are sheep. I adore them. After learning to card wool, spin wool, and knit — I also learned that I am very allergic to lanolin. Like in, it looks like I took an acid bath. Not good. So we sold my beloved sheep.
After all these experiments and failures, we decided on keeping animals for what they can add to the soil. And what they can add to the soil is POOP!
We have a hutch of very spoiled rabbits whose sole duty in life is to poop. Michael collects this poop and adds it to the compost pile. I couldn’t honestly even tell you for sure if our rabbits are boys or girls. That’s because their sole duty is to poop not repopulate the planet. Our rabbits all have names from Watership Down.
We also have a handful of laying hens. These hens have two duties on the farm. The first is to eat our scraps, our lawn clippings, and our garden weeds, and scratch through it repeatedly while pooping to speed along the compost process. Their second duty is to give us a few eggs a day. Really, this is just a bonus. Our chicks are named after Ogham trees, although really their names are “the ladies.”
No Bare Soil: This is an area where we have lots of room for improvement. What we will strive to do better with next year is succession planting — which means I need to start seeds in containers that can be put into beds when another crop comes out.
I also need to spend time this winter learning more about mulching techniques for the garden beds. This autumn we started mulching the bed with grass clippings from the chicken yard. The clippings have been scratched at for several weeks, so no seeds, and has a little bit of manure in it. So far I’ve covered about half the beds and they seem to be staying pretty weed free. We’ll see how that turns out.
It is really hard to get clean straw around here so I need to do some reading. I have _Practical Permaculture_, _The Resilient Farm_, _How to Grow More Vegetables . . . _, and _No Dig Organic Home & Garden _ queued up and waiting for cooler weather.
This post could easily be called Closing the circle, part 2. It is the same principle in that we seek to supply the needs of the farm here on the farm. In this case we are talking about the start and the end of the gardening process.
Seeds: Garden seeds are life, energy, and valuable.
I am a firm believer in the fact that we can’t buy our way to sustainability and that we should not commodify (or trademark) what should be free. The current seed and nursery market is dominated by just those things. Seeds that are trademarked (or otherwise held by private companies) just seems wrong to me.
Rather than spend money on something that I believe is morally /ethically objectionable — I save seeds and perennial plants that can be transplated. And I share. I share freely with those who asks for a start of a plant or seeds. There are a few plants that with my climate I can’t easily save seeds from. For those I buy a yearly packet from Victory Seeds.
Each seed or plant is a life, a source of renewable energy, and valuable. Each year I make sure to save enough seeds for the next year. Seed saving is pretty easy. You let the plant/fruit of the plant come to full maturity. Then you harvest the seed pod or the overly ripe fruit/vegetable. The seed pod is really easy; break it open and collect the seeds. The fruit/veg is still pretty simple; break open the fuit/veg, scoop out the seeds, let dry, and then store. I store my seeds in prescription bottles. When the bottles are new they are washed out really well, sterilized as best I can, and then left in the sun to dry.
Surplus: The gardens nearly all produce more than we could possibly eat. The way we handle it is to eat all we want of that day’s harvest. Then we freeze, can, or dehydrate what is left. One day a week we invite others to come harvest for themselves. We are careful to teach them how to harvest properly. Occasionally we will harvest for another and take it to them.
An example: The start of the raspberry/blackberry season. We harvest early in the morning and have berries with breakfast and lunch. Then the remainder are put on a cloth lined baking pan and covered with a cloth napkin. Then they are set on a freezer shelf. The next morning, I scoop them off the tray and into a freezer bag or glass jar.
An example: I also keep “Chicken Bags” going. This is a ziplock bag where all the little bits and pieces of harvest go. Not enough basil to run the dehydrator, put it in the newest chicken bag. Too much watermelon, put in the chicken bag. Just a few blackberries, put them in the bag. A bit of zucchini left, shred it and add it to the bag. Just a scraping of rice, into the bag. A few beans, into the bag. You get the idea. The chickens get their fair share of the harvest when it is first picked, so this is seconds. If left on the porch rail for a bit before feeding, it will have flies, wasps, creepy crawies, ants, and other things in it.
People Power: 1) Using human minds and bodies to accomplish the task at hand. 2) Preferring to do fewer jobs well, slowly, and by hand. 3) Becoming proficient in the use of non-petroleum powered tools.
Yard: There is something calm and meditative about listening to someone using a scythe. It wooshes through the grass and leaves behind cut vegetation and a clean smell. You can use it while the grass is wet and the day is still cool. It isn’t hard work once you’ve learned the basics and you have a sharp blade. But it isn’t easy either. You must put your body into motion. You should keep your mind on your work.
An old fashioned reel mower works about the same. But if your ground isn’t even or you have clumpy grass, it is a much harder task. You still get the cut vegetation and you are still free from petroleum and oil smells. You still need sharp blades and to keep your mind on your business.
Or you could wait until almost noon and fire up the gas powered lawnmower. It leaves behind cut vegetation and an aroma of burning gas and oil. You still get the job done, but it isn’t nearly as pleasant an experience.
There’s actually another way that I dream of. . . . This is the front yard of my dreams. Planting enough trees that the grass doesn’t really grow. Encouraging the clover to grow instead of grass. Having enough garden beds, pollinator beds, chicken yards, and rabbit yards that mowing is only necessary along thought out paths.
Gardens: We use the people powered principle in the garden as well. This is a combination of a couple of my garden principles: stay out of the growing beds and people powered.
Our kitchen garden beds are each 5 foot wide by 20 foot long. They are set in a grid that is (currently) 5 beds wide by 3 beds long. Between each bed is a 2 1/2 foot grass path. Our goal is to never step in the garden bed. It is just wide enough that even I (at 5’1” tall) can reach the center. It is just wide enough that you can hoe it up at the start of garden season without stepping in it. If, when planting seeds, you need to be in the middle, we use a wide board that distributes our weight evenly.
We use a long-handled hoe, a long handled spade (rarely), and a collection of small hand held tools (Each is about 12 inches long) that includes a hoe, rake, transplanting spade, shovel, hole maker, and pruners. Mostly we use our fingers. Fingers are made for pinching, pulling, tugging, and you get a lot of practice squatting and changing positions while squatting while working this way.
We have found that by not stepping in our beds and by not bringing in power tools the soil stays loose and we stay flexible as we age.
Sustainability > Keeping Critters > Closing the Circle
Closing the Circle: Finish what you start, in sustainable/regenertive agriculture it means supplying all inputs from your own property and handling all your outputs on property as well.
This post is about how we attempt to close the circle with our critters and where we can make improvements. Closing the circle on human needs is impractical for us at this point and not really something we see ourselves capable of doing even in the future. So we make the most ethical choices we can. But that’s for another day and another post.
I talked a little about this in the post on compost. That, more or less, only dealt with outputs. Things like: manure, bedding, weeds, food waste, material, paper products, urine, etc. This post will look at rabbits, chickens, Jasper (dog), and budgies.
Rabbits are one of my favorite farm animals. I spent some time learning about what rabbits really eat and then figuring out how to grow that food here. When I feed the rabbits from our property and then collect their waste . . . That is closing the circle. As a reminder for rabbit outputs: we scoop up rabbit manure every month and add it to the compost piles; when a rabbit dies, their body is buried under a newly planted tree. Thank goodness, we don’t lose rabbits very often, but it has happened and will happen again.
So what do rabbits eat, and what can I grow to feed them?
Hay (90% of diet) — Grass, clover, weeds, plantain, wheat grass, sprouted wheat, dandelion, clover (white and red), timothy hay
I have all this on the farm, with the exception of the wheat for sprouting and making wheat grass. We have started transitioning them by feeding them greens, herbs, and some veggies all summer. I have wheat ordered for the sprouts and wheat grass. I’ll get them used to that all fall and hopefully we will be fully transitioned by winter. I am not sure that we will ever grow our own wheat, we certainly won’t even try until after retirement.
The chickens we currently have were raised on a homegrown diet supplemented by some scratch grain to train them to enter the ark and leave the ark (what I call their house). We planted several things specifically for the chickens this year in the garden.
For keeping clean — dirt, sand, a bit of grit.
For housing — to keep dry and shade, add insulating hay for winter
Protein — bugs, earthworms, mice (ick!), homemade yogurt, maggots, slugs, snails, ants, sprouted pumpkin seeds and sunflower seeds, mealworms, and grubs.
Calcium — ground egg shells, homemade yogurt
Fodder — yard greens (grass/weeds/leaves), leafy garden greens, most vegetable and fruit scraps, hay in the winter, bread crusts
We keep scratch grain here for getting them up in the morning and back in at night.
Compost— The composting chicken project seems to be going really well. I am amazed at how many bugs and worms I see in their yard. They seem satisfied and not hungry.
Pets: Jasper and Budgies
Our pets are still mostly on commercial food.
Although Jasper (5 year old chorkie) has been on a home-cooked diet a lot. I sort of rotate him. He eats whatever he is fed and is particularly fond of yogurt and carrots. His home-cooked food includes: chicken, fish, eggs, potatoes, sweet potatoes, carrots, green beans, peas, blueberries, and a dash of oil. His commercial food is a salmon/sweet potato mix.
Jasper’s waste is not composted. It is picked up and put in his own little septic that we made. We call it the “poo pit.” We’ve been using it 3 years and it hasn’t even reach the top of the lowest tire. I throw grass clippings or wood chips in there weekly to keep the smell down.
The budgies can easily be fed with the greens, herbs, and vegetables we grow. The biggest thing we would need to add would be the variety of seeds they love. Right now we feed them a quality food from the pet store. They did not approve of a sprouted food we tried.
The budgie aviary has a tray for droppings. We add a layer of used paper over the tray and that is emptied into the compost every evening.
Conclusions: I am pretty happy with where are right now in our attempt to close the animals circle. Next Spring my goal is to grow enough for the chickens and rabbits except the hay. I’ll get that from Hay Bob. Jasper will go back on a home cooked diet later this Fall. He’s looking a little plumper than I’d like. The budgies won’t have anything changed. They eat just a couple of teaspoons a day. Not worth trying to fix.
Whenever I am asked for sustainabiltity advice, I always say compost. Compost is the answer whether we are looking at your garden, your lawn, or your home. Compost is the answer because it should be the end of your consumer cycle.
Compost works by ways that are chemical, biological, and magical. I tend to just think of the whole process as magical and ignore the science. This is not a science blog and I am not a science teacher. I am a gardener/farmer . . . By the way is there a word for a gardner/farmer? Farmner? Yeah, no . . . Probably not. How about a female farmer? Farm-her? Yeah, I like that.
Kim’s magical compost rules
Pick out a spot to be your compost pile/bed. For beginner gardeners I often recommend making it the same size your garden beds will be.
Lay down a thick layer of cardboard or twigs.
Dirt: Cover that layer with a bit of dirt. Even old potting soil will do, especially if you use the organic potting soil.
Food Waste: Fruit, vegetable, grain, egg shell, coffee grounds, tea leaves, etc. NO meat, cheese, oil.
Plant Material: weeds, plants removed from your garden or landscaping, wood ashes, shredded paper, grass clippings, and fallen leaves.
Animal Bedding: If you keep animals on bedding (and you use organic bedding) this gets added too. For instance: we keep budgies over dirt or scrap paper, that along with their seed hulls and greens goes in the compost. Example: we use a mix of grass clippings and wood shavings for chicken bedding, it goes in the compost when we clean out the chicken house. The rabbit manure gets added once a month when we clean under their hutch. NO dog manure or cat litter please. Human urine is fine — in fact, I often encourage the guys to leave their deposit out there.
Other Additions: You can add all natural fabric scraps, unvarnished wood scraps, untreated lumber, grape vines, blackberry brambles, silk dental floss, bamboo toothbrushes (althougth I prefer to use those as plant markers), etc. Basically if it grew and hasn’t been too processed, you can add it to the compost.
Cover it: We keep a fresh layer of greens (grass clippings, garden weeds, etc) over the pile at all times. This really helps keep the smell down.
Turn it: After the autumn equinox, turn the pile over into a new space. This can mean simply turning into the space next to it, into metal trash cans, or into a new garden bed. This is the compost you will use to feed your gardens. Anything that hasn’t broken down goes back on the bottom of the compost pile for the next year.
You will see lots of worms. Try to be gentle with them. They are making their own compost to add to yours.
I am experimenting this summer with something I am calling the composting chickens. We have layered grass clipping about 6-8 inches deep in the main chicken yard. Every morning I go out and rake it all back into a neat pile, hollow out a bowl shape in the center, and add the food scraps from the house. As I am working, the chickens are making happy noises as they look for bugs left behind under the grass clippings I have moved. Then they get really excited and start scratching through the compost/grass clippings. This turns the pile — and scatters it a bit — and they leave behind some poo as they do it. As we finish their yard expansion, I am planning on adding boards around the bottom to keep the compost in and make the whole yard one big compost bed. Due to the size and shape of our little farm, our girls can’t free-range. So a static yard is the best we can do for them. I think this will really add to both their happiness and the job title. In the winter we will add hay bales or straw bales in the place of the grass clippings.
The Septic System:
We have a 22 year old septic system that works perfectly without any intervention. So I am pretty content to leave that system in place. If it ever fails, we will transition to a dry composting toilet. That will mean a separate humanure compost that will not be used around food. That is a whole other project and will require a lot of research.
In the meantime, we practice “Safe Septic.” That means, potty cloths for urine, a bidet and small amount of tp for feces, or a bidet and potty cloth for feces — for the brave at heart, just me so far, no chemical cleaners, no bleach, no regular shampoo, body wash, dish soap, or laundry soap. In my bathroom, I collect the shower water using a bucket and I have another bucket under the sink drain. I use these for flushing urine. Any water left over at the end of the day either waters indoor plants or gets tossed in the compost. This keeps the amount of water entering the septic much lower and allows for better biological breakdown of the feces in the tank. It has also dropped our water bill by 40%. We are pretty frugal with our water usage anyway and this made a huge difference.
Our approach to gardening has evolved over many years. We tried it all: row gardening, square foot gardening, bio-intensive (Jeavons), permaculture, and no dig. Each of these has informed our philosophy, practices, and principles. Each of these has also been practiced under the umbrella of organic/natural.
Here are some of our guiding principles. I would like to explore these more in separate posts. Our gardening principles are just that, principles not rules. We have experimented enough to know what each plant likes, doesn’t like, and where we can “fudge the edges.” The only time we use rules is if we are planting something for the very first time or trying again after repeated failures.
Grow what you eat
Eat what you grow
Plant perennials and things you can save seeds from
Store your surplus wisely
Stay out of the growing beds
People power not petroleum power
Close the circle
Time in the Gardens:
In March and April, we tend to spend a couple of hours a week in the gardens. Our gardening season begins in earnest on the Spring Equinox. This is when when we prune the blackberries, thin the strawberries, clear out the stalks in the pollinator garden, move manure and bedding to the compost, and start harvesting asparagus. Michael begins mowing the lawn and we use it in equal parts for compost and chicken bedding.
May and June are the months when we spend the most amount of time in the kitchen garden. There are beds to prepare, compost to turn, compost to spread, seeds to start, and then the near constant weeding. Our last planting day is the Summer Solstice. After that we tend the plants that are already growing. During these months it is not unusual for me to spend a couple of hours doing garden work each morning. Kelly then spends most of Saturday doing the jobs that he is better at than I am. Michael is still cutting grass for compost and chicken bedding. This is also the time for building projects.
By July and August, we are simply weeding for about a half an hour on weekdays and maybe a couple of hours on Saturday morning. Kelly takes over the primary Saturday weeding job because I am harvesting daily and processing the foods. Harvesting hours in the kitchen garden are hard to calculate because I do it as I move through each bed weeding, checking for bugs, and diseased plants. Somedays I bring in huge baskets of food, somedays a small container. The orchardand herb garden begins to fourish with herbs hitting their peak just about the same time that the blackberries are ready. It is utter chaos at times.
September, October, and November are the months when my enthusiasm wanes just a bit. I’ve been weeding for 5 months and there are 3 more to go. Some garden beds begin to look empty as the plants complete their lifecycle and die back. Some beds have huge flowering stalks that will become next year’s seeds. By the Autumn equinox we cover the compost so the winter rains don’t wash all the nutrients away. The chicken house gets cleaned out down to the bare earth in late October and the bedding added to the new compost pile. The rabbit manure is collected and added to the new pile too. This is also the time for more building projects.
Late November is the time to make sure all the produce is out of the garden, the seeds are safely stored, and all the pots are clean and waiting for the start of another gardening season.
“If Harmony is my Abbey, then simplicity, stability, and sustainability are my vows.” — Me
Sustainability is the ability to be maintained at a certain rate or level and avoidance of the depletion of natural resources in order to maintain an ecological balance. *source: Oxford dictionary
So, maintain or grow, but don’t deplete — balance. A couple of things to note here, I don’t think we can buy our way to sustainibility and I do not believe in commodifying that which should be free. That about sums up my definition, but what does it look like in practice here on our farm? Stay tuned. I hope to have a whole series of posts about how we strive to live sustainably.
Here are just a couple of examples where you can see how principles and questions lead to our practice.
A Sustainability Practice: We do not till or plow our garden.
Why? It requires petroleum. We prefer people power.
Why? It kills organisms in the soil. We prefer strong healthy soil.
Why? It requires nearly perfect weather. We prefer to admit that Spring in southeastern Indiana is wet and deal with it.
Why? It requires packing down the soil as it turns the soil. We prefer loose, crumbly soil.
Why? It requires a purchase and maintanence. We prefer a cheaper solution and maintanence that can be done on the front porch. IE: a spade, a hoe, and a pitchfork.
A Sustainability Practice: We do not buy commercial cleaners.
Why? It requires petroleum. We prefer to use less non-renewable resources.
Why? It pollutes the waterways. We prefer our water clean and drinkable, not just for us, but for all those downstream too.
Why? It kills organisms in the soil. We prefer strong healthy soil. (See above, the soil has a lot to do with most of our reasons.)
Why? It is hard on a septic system and/or a grey water system. We prefer not to replace our current septic — the cost is prohibitive and the concrete is not a renewable resource.
Why? It requires a purchase that can only be used for one purpose. We prefer to use multi-purpose ingredients.